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Buraku Social Movement Organizations

Work in Progress

References and Bibliography will be added later

The Kaizen Movement

  • wanted to improve (kaizen) from the inside

List of Groups under this movement

  • 1893: The Youth Virtue Association (Seinen Shintoku Kai) 

  • 1895: Thrift and Savings Association (Kinken Chochiku Kai)

  • 1898: Customs Improvements League Association (Fūzoku Kaizen Dōmei Kai)

  • 1902: Commoners Safety and Work Association (Bisaku Heiminkai)

  • 1903: Great Japan Fraternal Integration Society (Dainippon Dōhō Yūwa Kai)

Yūwa / Dōwa Movement

  • also called as Sympathy and Reconciliation Movement ( Dōjō Yūwa Undō)​​

  • Based on the sympathy towards the buraku, the movement to reconcile with the general population with the burakumin under the patronage of the emperor

  • Both the kaizen and yūwa groups were arguing that the “blame” of the discrimination an the situation the burakumin are in are theirs to take.

  • Differences between kaizen and yūwa

    • Prior believed that the buraku discrimination will be solved by improving the education and environment of the buraku people and areas.

    • Latter believes that the discrimination will be solved when the attitudes of the general public changes against the buraku people

List of Groups under this movement

  • 1912 Great Japan Brotherhood Society (Daiwa Dōshi Kai)

  • Chinzei Impartial Society (Chinzei Kōmeikai) in Fukuoka Prefecture

  • Fukushima Town People's Unity Association (Fukushima Chōmin Icchi Kyōkai) in Hiroshima Prefecture,

  • the Izumo Partisan Society (Izumo Dōshikai) in Shimane Prefecture

  • the Okayama Prefecture Partisan Society (Okayama-ken Dōshikai) in Okayama Prefecture

  • 1914 Imperial Way Society (Teikoku Kōdō Kai)

    • afterwards many groups throughout many prefectures were established

    • first national sized group

      • The Fukui Friendship Society (Fukui-ken Shinwa Kai)

      • The Toyama Yūwa Association (Toyama-ken Yūwa Kai)

      • The Wakayama Dōwa Association (Wakayama-ken Dōwa Kai)

      • Okayama Prefecture Harmony Society (Okayama-ken Kyōwakai)

      • The Tottori Prefecture Wholeheartedness Society (Tottori-ken Isshin Kai)

      • The Torine Prefecture Harmony and Respect Association (Torine-ken Wakei Kai)

      • The Hiroshima Prefecture Sympathy Society (Hiroshima-ken Kyōmei Kai)

      • The Yamaguchi Wholeheartedness Society (Yamaguchi-ken Isshin Kai)

      • The Tokushima Prefecture Yūwa Groups Association (Tokushima-ken Yūwa Dantai Rengo Kai)

      • The Ehime Good Neighbour Society (Ehime-ken Zenrin Kai)

      • 1919 Kōchi Prefecture Way Society Association (Kōchi-ken Kōdō Kai)

      • Fukuoka Prefecture Friendship Society (Fukuoka-ken Shinzen Kai)

      • Oita Prefecture Friendship Society (Oita-ken Shinwa Kai)

  • 1921 the Mutual Love Association (Dōaikai)

  • 1925 Central Association for Reconciliation Projects (Chū’ō Yūwa Jigyō Kai)

    • Buraku Improvement Groups in all regions were unified under this group

    • Became the governmental body of the yūwa movement

    • Provided subsidies for yūwa groups and buraku improvement projects in every prefecture

    • Raised awareness within the general population and involved the imperial family

    • 1941: changed to Dōwa Service Society (Dōwa Hōkō Kai)

      • Name changed from yūwa to dōwa

        • Yūwa Projects to DōwProjects, etc.

      • During the war, the group wasn’t active and published only few books

      • Dissolved in 1946, March

  • 1960 All Japan Assimilation Association (Zen Nihon Dōwa Kai)

    •  was formed with dōwa area residents at its core, with the aim of creating a nationwide movement

  • 1986 National Liberal Assimilation Association (Zenkoku Jiyū Dōwa Kai)

Kaihō Movement

  • Burakumin​ disapproving the yūwa/ dōwa  movement.

  • Instead of relying on the government or around on their support and help, they want to fight with their own strength  

  • The Suiheisha Declaration became the principle of the buraku liberation movement

    • They used the term eta which was considered as a derogatory term as a word to be proud of

  • Did Discrimination Denunciation 

  • List of Groups under this movement

  • 1920: Swallow Association (Tsubame Kai)

  • 1922-1941: National Levelers' Society (Zenkoku Suiheisha)

    • dissolved in 1943​

  • 1946-1955 National Committee for Buraku Liberation (NCBL, Buraku Kaihō Zenkoku Iinkai)

  • 1955: Buraku Liberation League (BLL, Buraku Kaihō Dōmei)

For the detailed history of the

National Levellers' Society (Zenkoku Suiheisha),

see here


  • Formerly the group that advocated for a broader class struggle in order to solve buraku issue

  • 1976 National United Buraku Liberation Movement Association (Zenkairen, Zenkoku Buraku Kaihō Undō Rengō Kai)

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